A preferential trade zone (including preferential trade agreements, PTA) is a trading bloc that offers preferential access to certain products from participating countries. This requires a reduction in tariffs, but not in their total abolition. A ZEP can be implemented through a trade pact. This is the first step in economic integration. The border between a EPZ and a Free Trade Area (EEA) can be blurred, as almost all ATPs have the main objective of becoming a free trade agreement in accordance with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Since the beginning of the 20th century, several hundred bilateral THPs have been signed. The Canada Research Chair in International Political Economy`s TREND project lists approximately 700 trade agreements, the vast majority of which are bilateral.  Given the recent proliferation of bilateral TTPs and the emergence of mega-PTAs (broad regional trade agreements such as the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) or the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a global trading system managed exclusively under the WTO now seems unrealistic and interactions between trade systems must be taken into account. The increasing complexity of the international trading system resulting from the proliferation of EPZs should be taken into account when considering the choice of countries or regions used by countries or regions to promote their trade relations and environmental agendas.  ATPs have grown rapidly; In the 1990s, there were just over 100 PTAs. In 2014, there were more than 700.
 This paper examines the impact of preferential trade agreements (EPAs) on facilitating international trade flows linking production networks. We consider more than 250 PTAs with trade flows that are distinguished in parts, components and terminal products for the period 1979-2008. Estimates of the gravitational equation indicate that the parallel annual effects of PTA formation on the trade in parts and components are not visible, while PTAs have positive and pervasive effects on both types of trade flows 6 and 9 years after the formation of the PTA. Keywords: preferential trade agreements, regional trade agreements Multinational expansion strategy, gravitational equation JEL Classification: F15, F53 If you are aware of the missing articles that cite them, you can help us create these links by adding the corresponding references in the same way as above for each referenced article.